sinobug:

THE VIEW FROM ABOVE" series on Flickr by itchydogimages/SINOBUG
- a collection of caterpillar images captured from the bird’s eye view
(Pu’er, Yunnan, China)

View all images in the THE VIEW FROM ABOVE series in my Flickr photostream HERE.



by Sinobug (itchydogimages) on Flickr.
Pu’er, Yunnan, China

See more Chinese insects and spiders on my Flickr site HERE……

discoverynews:

Shark Population Expected to Nosedive in 2100 

spaceplasma:

Comet ‘Siding Spring’ headed for close encounter with Mars

Mars is about to dodge a cosmic snowball on this Sunday. On October 19, Comet Siding Spring will pass within 88,000 miles of Mars – just one third of the distance from the Earth to the Moon! Traveling at 33 miles per second and weighing as much as a small mountain, the comet hails from the outer fringes of our solar system, originating in a region of icy debris known as the Oort cloud.

Comets from the Oort cloud are both ancient and rare. Since this is Comet Siding Spring’s first trip through the inner solar system, scientists are excited to learn more about its composition and the effects of its gas and dust on the Mars upper atmosphere. NASA will be watching closely before, during, and after the flyby with its entire fleet of Mars orbiters and rovers, along with the Hubble Space Telescope and dozens of instruments on Earth. The encounter is certain to teach us more about Oort cloud comets, the Martian atmosphere, and the solar system’s earliest ingredients.

  • For more information, click here

Credit: NASA/GSFC

(Source: youtu.be, via infinity-imagined)

sciencesoup:

Introduction to Genetics

We know that DNA contains the genetic information of the cell, providing the instructions for how to build proteins. We know how DNA replicates itself and we know how somatic cells divide. But how does DNA actually determine what we look like and who we are? Why does one…

neurosciencestuff:

Caffeine affects boys and girls differently after puberty
Caffeine intake by children and adolescents has been rising for decades, due in large part to the popularity of caffeinated sodas and energy drinks, which now are marketed to children as young as four. Despite this, there is little research on the effects of caffeine on young people.
One researcher who is conducting such investigations is Jennifer Temple, PhD, associate professor in the Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, University at Buffalo School of Public Health and Health Professions.
Her new study finds that after puberty, boys and girls experience different heart rate and blood pressure changes after consuming caffeine. Girls also experience some differences in caffeine effect during their menstrual cycles.
The study, “Cardiovascular Responses to Caffeine by Gender and Pubertal Stage,” will be published online June 16 in the July 2014 edition of the journal Pediatrics.
Past studies, including those by this research team, have shown that caffeine increases blood pressure and decreases heart rate in children, teens and adults, including pre-adolescent boys and girls. The purpose here was to learn whether gender differences in cardiovascular responses to caffeine emerge after puberty and if those responses differ across phases of the menstrual cycle.
Temple says, “We found an interaction between gender and caffeine dose, with boys having a greater response to caffeine than girls, as well as interactions between pubertal phase, gender and caffeine dose, with gender differences present in post-pubertal, but not in pre-pubertal, participants.
“Finally,” she says, “we found differences in responses to caffeine across the menstrual cycle in post-pubertal girls, with decreases in heart rate that were greater in the mid-luteal phase and blood pressure increases that were greater in the mid-follicular phase of the menstrual cycle.
“In this study, we were looking exclusively into the physical results of caffeine ingestion,” she says.
Phases of the menstrual cycle, marked by changing levels of hormones, are the follicular phase, which begins on the first day of menstruation and ends with ovulation, and the luteal phase, which follows ovulation and is marked by significantly higher levels of progesterone than the previous phase.
Future research in this area will determine the extent to which gender differences are mediated by physiological factors such as steroid hormone level or by differences in patterns of caffeine use, caffeine use by peers or more autonomy and control over beverage purchases, Temple says.
This double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study was funded by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health. 
It examined heart rate and blood pressure before and after administration of placebo and two doses of caffeine (1 and 2 mg/kg) in pre-pubertal (8- to 9-year-old; n = 52) and post-pubertal (15- to 17-year-old; n = 49) boys (n = 54) and girls (n = 47).

neurosciencestuff:

Caffeine affects boys and girls differently after puberty

Caffeine intake by children and adolescents has been rising for decades, due in large part to the popularity of caffeinated sodas and energy drinks, which now are marketed to children as young as four. Despite this, there is little research on the effects of caffeine on young people.

One researcher who is conducting such investigations is Jennifer Temple, PhD, associate professor in the Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, University at Buffalo School of Public Health and Health Professions.

Her new study finds that after puberty, boys and girls experience different heart rate and blood pressure changes after consuming caffeine. Girls also experience some differences in caffeine effect during their menstrual cycles.

The study, “Cardiovascular Responses to Caffeine by Gender and Pubertal Stage,” will be published online June 16 in the July 2014 edition of the journal Pediatrics.

Past studies, including those by this research team, have shown that caffeine increases blood pressure and decreases heart rate in children, teens and adults, including pre-adolescent boys and girls. The purpose here was to learn whether gender differences in cardiovascular responses to caffeine emerge after puberty and if those responses differ across phases of the menstrual cycle.

Temple says, “We found an interaction between gender and caffeine dose, with boys having a greater response to caffeine than girls, as well as interactions between pubertal phase, gender and caffeine dose, with gender differences present in post-pubertal, but not in pre-pubertal, participants.

“Finally,” she says, “we found differences in responses to caffeine across the menstrual cycle in post-pubertal girls, with decreases in heart rate that were greater in the mid-luteal phase and blood pressure increases that were greater in the mid-follicular phase of the menstrual cycle.

“In this study, we were looking exclusively into the physical results of caffeine ingestion,” she says.

Phases of the menstrual cycle, marked by changing levels of hormones, are the follicular phase, which begins on the first day of menstruation and ends with ovulation, and the luteal phase, which follows ovulation and is marked by significantly higher levels of progesterone than the previous phase.

Future research in this area will determine the extent to which gender differences are mediated by physiological factors such as steroid hormone level or by differences in patterns of caffeine use, caffeine use by peers or more autonomy and control over beverage purchases, Temple says.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study was funded by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health. 

It examined heart rate and blood pressure before and after administration of placebo and two doses of caffeine (1 and 2 mg/kg) in pre-pubertal (8- to 9-year-old; n = 52) and post-pubertal (15- to 17-year-old; n = 49) boys (n = 54) and girls (n = 47).

(via vanesa)

earthstory:

Here is a photo of a stunning a sun-pillar captured at sunset near Jenison, Michigan on April 10, 2012. Sun Pillars occur typically during sunrise or sunset; when sunlight is reflected off the surface of falling ice crystals associated with thin high-level clouds, like Cirrostratus clouds.The crystals are hexagonal, plate-like crystals and as they fall they are forced into a horizontal orientation due to resistance from air.The result is the reflection of this beautiful pillar of light.-JeanImage Credit: Kevin Povenz

earthstory:

Here is a photo of a stunning a sun-pillar captured at sunset near Jenison, Michigan on April 10, 2012. 

Sun Pillars occur typically during sunrise or sunset; when sunlight is reflected off the surface of falling ice crystals associated with thin high-level clouds, like Cirrostratus clouds.

The crystals are hexagonal, plate-like crystals and as they fall they are forced into a horizontal orientation due to resistance from air.

The result is the reflection of this beautiful pillar of light.

-Jean

Image Credit: Kevin Povenz

astronomy-to-zoology:

Banded Blue Pierrot (Discolampa ethion)

…a species of gossamer-winged butterfly (Lycaenidae) which is native to Southern Asia, where it occurs in Sri Lanka and South India, east to the Philippines. D. ethion caterpillars are typically found in association with plants of the genus Zizyphus, adults on the other hand are known to visit a much broader range of plants. 

Classification

Animalia-Arthropoda-Insecta-Lepidoptera-Lycaenidae-Discolampa-D. ethion

Images: Jeevan Jose and Shyamal

atlasobscura:

CHEMIN DE LA MATURE -Etsaut, France

During his reign, one of King Louis XIV’s largest projects was to create a powerful navy for France, but the king’s military ambition outstripped nature’s ability to provide lumber, so the monarch was forced to look farther afield for his materials.He found a new wood source in the nearby Pacq forest which was lush, but inconveniently located beyond a difficult ravine known as the “Gorge of Hell.”

Even a hellish gorge couldn’t keep the king from his naval dreams.The solution his engineers devised was to cut a path straight across one of the mountainsides to bypass the gorge completely. Thus the Chemin de la Mature was born. Finished in 1772, long after Louis’ demise, the narrow path was chiseled over 600 feet above the forest floor and runs almost 4,000 feet across the rock. In English, “The Mast Road” allowed thick logs which would become masts to be transported via mule cart to the shipyards. 

Today the path is still accessible as a hiking path. While it is no longer used as an industrial road, the Chemin de la Mature is still one of the most scenic paths to the French coast.

Keep hiking at atlasobcura.com  

earthstory:

Of millstones and fossilsGeology is often of great service to archaeology. The most obvious one is reconstructing the palaeo-environment of a dig site, which takes a large team of specialists in such matters as pollen, ecology or soils. Geophysics also comes to the rescue, used to map old roads and house foundations or discover ancient buried Saharan rivers using radar. Geochemistry helps reconstruct trade routes and exchange networks using gemstones, precious metals or obsidian. Advanced analysis of teeth allows us to find out where people grew up and trace their migrations.Now fossils have come to the rescue, helping to prove that 19th century millstones used in Ohio grain mills actually came from France, as their name (French millstones) suggested. They proved the origin of the chert (known as buhr) in the Tertiary formations of the Paris Basin, those layers that rest over the famous Cretaceous chalk that forms the white cliffs of Normandy (and Dover). These rocks were instrumental in reconstructing the evolutionary developments between the fossils in the secondary rocks (up to the end Cretaceous meteorite impact and mass extinction) below and the life forms currently existing. They also proved that the sea had transgressed repeatedly onto the land, by their alternations of marine and freshwater fish, and event thought impossible at the time. Similar rocks exist in Ohio, and it was uncertain whether the name was just a moniker or reflected their actual origin. Both algae and snails proved the French origin, and the Ohio cherts turned out to be much older, dating from the late Paleozoic of 300 million years ago (compared to the less than 65 million years for the French chert). The Ohio rocks are also of marine origin, while the French ones are freshwater sediments.These stones were widely exported as ballast in ships, and manufactured in cities such as Cleveland and Cincinnati. They were preferred over the local chert because they produced fine white flour more easily. To confuse matters further, some of the millstones were made of local stone, and resemble the French product at a macro level.Past posts on geology and our human past:The king of Stonehenge’s teeth:http://tinyurl.com/pnsv2enTracing ancient gold: http://tinyurl.com/c9nba7fGeochemistry and obsidian trade routes:http://tinyurl.com/kbda4woDid Neanderthal paint in Spanish caves:http://tinyurl.com/lycavqdLozImage credit: SEPMhttp://phys.org/news/2014-06-scientist-fossils-historic-ohio-millstones.html

earthstory:

Of millstones and fossils

Geology is often of great service to archaeology. The most obvious one is reconstructing the palaeo-environment of a dig site, which takes a large team of specialists in such matters as pollen, ecology or soils. Geophysics also comes to the rescue, used to map old roads and house foundations or discover ancient buried Saharan rivers using radar. Geochemistry helps reconstruct trade routes and exchange networks using gemstones, precious metals or obsidian. Advanced analysis of teeth allows us to find out where people grew up and trace their migrations.

Now fossils have come to the rescue, helping to prove that 19th century millstones used in Ohio grain mills actually came from France, as their name (French millstones) suggested. They proved the origin of the chert (known as buhr) in the Tertiary formations of the Paris Basin, those layers that rest over the famous Cretaceous chalk that forms the white cliffs of Normandy (and Dover). These rocks were instrumental in reconstructing the evolutionary developments between the fossils in the secondary rocks (up to the end Cretaceous meteorite impact and mass extinction) below and the life forms currently existing. They also proved that the sea had transgressed repeatedly onto the land, by their alternations of marine and freshwater fish, and event thought impossible at the time. 

Similar rocks exist in Ohio, and it was uncertain whether the name was just a moniker or reflected their actual origin. Both algae and snails proved the French origin, and the Ohio cherts turned out to be much older, dating from the late Paleozoic of 300 million years ago (compared to the less than 65 million years for the French chert). The Ohio rocks are also of marine origin, while the French ones are freshwater sediments.

These stones were widely exported as ballast in ships, and manufactured in cities such as Cleveland and Cincinnati. They were preferred over the local chert because they produced fine white flour more easily. To confuse matters further, some of the millstones were made of local stone, and resemble the French product at a macro level.

Past posts on geology and our human past:

The king of Stonehenge’s teeth:http://tinyurl.com/pnsv2en
Tracing ancient gold: http://tinyurl.com/c9nba7f
Geochemistry and obsidian trade routes:http://tinyurl.com/kbda4wo
Did Neanderthal paint in Spanish caves:http://tinyurl.com/lycavqd

Loz

Image credit: SEPM
http://phys.org/news/2014-06-scientist-fossils-historic-ohio-millstones.html

invertebrate-science:

Family Salticidae- The Jumping Spiders

The family Salticidae earned its common name, the jumping spiders, because of the ability of these spiders to leap long distances to tackle their prey. This is the largest of the spider families with about 5000 currently known species. Unlike many other spider species jumping spiders do not build elaborate webs to catch prey. Instead they use their excellent eyesight to find prey which they will then stalk until they are close enough to pounce. Many salticid spiders mimic insects in order to get close to their prey.

(Image source: 1, 2, 3, 4)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arachnology

(via somuchscience)

skunkbear:

Among the images originally included in yesterday’s world cup quiz was a still from this video. It shows the eruption of Sarychev Volcano on an island northeast of Japan. Because of the angle of the shot, it’s hard to believe this video was actually taken from space, by astronauts aboard the International Space Station! Here’s the original video (in case you want to see a less pixelated, more leisurely version:

Image Credit: NASA

saatchiart:

Eric Cahan captures the natural gradient of the sky during transitional phases of the day in locations all over the world.

(via humanoidhistory)